Friday, June 20, 2008

Psalm Two


Psalm two is attributed to David in Acts 4:25-26. On what occasion it was written is not known, but it is prophetic in scope and highlights the final work of the Messiah - the Son of God, the Son of Man, indeed, the Son of David. The One who will deal with the nations that plot against the Lord. Dr. Wiersbe provides this excellent introduction to the psalm:

Psalm 1 emphasizes God's law while Psalm 2 focuses on prophecy. The people in Psalm 1 delight in the law, but the people in Psalm 2 defy the law. Psalm 1 begins with a beatitude and Psalm 2 ends with a beatitude. Psalm 1 is never quoted in the New Testament, while Psalm 2 is quoted or alluded to at least eighteen times, more than any single psalm. (See Matt. 3:17; 7:23; 17:5; Mark 1:11; 9:7; Luke 3:22; 9:35; John 1:49; Acts 4:25-26; 13:33; Phil. 2:12; Heb. 1:2, 5; 5:5; Rev. 2:26-27; 11:18; 12:5; 19:15). It is a Messianic psalm, along with 8, 16, 22, 23, 40, 41, 45, 68, 69, 102, 110, and 118. The test for a Messianic psalm is that it is quoted in the New Testament as referring to Jesus (Luke 24:27, 44). But this is also a royal psalm, referring to the coronation of a Jewish king and the rebellion of some vassal nations that hoped to gain their freedom (Warren Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary – Wisdom And Poetry, p. 88).

I. The Conspiracy of the Nations
Why do nations rage, And people continually devise vanity? [The] kings of [the] earth take their stand, And ruling, they counsel together Against [the] Lord and against His anointed. Let us intensely pull off their bonds, And let us cast away their ropes. (Psalm 2:1-3)

1a. Why do nations rage
? The Psalmist, is dumbfounded! Why indeed, do the nations rage (ragash, "band together with evil intent," "to conspire or plot")? Though the word ragash is only used here in the whole of the Old Testament, the word implies a violent "commotion," "a loud noise." The word is related to the Aramaic regash of Daniel 6:6, where the governors and satraps after conspiring against Daniel rushed in to king Darius and said "King Darius, live forever!" "The psalmist here sees the nations in violent agitation or commotion, as if under high excitement, engaged in accomplishing some purpose - rushing on to secure something, or to prevent something. The image of a mob, or of a tumultuous unregulated assemblage, would probably convey the idea of the psalmist." (Albert Barnes, Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible)

This psalm is prophecy. David is the psalmist and as the ancient Jewish rabbis say, He is writing about King Messiah! Later rabbis claim the psalm is about David (A. Cohen, The Soncino Books of the Bible – The Psalms, p. 2). The Book of Acts relates this verse to the Lord Jesus Christ (Acts 4:25). "This applied to the rejection of the perfect Man, the Lord Jesus Christ, by man at His first advent (Acts 4:25-26), a hostility that has continued throughout this present age and will find its climax at the second advent." (Merrill Unger, Unger's Commentary on the Old Testament, p. 750)
Notice what Isaiah has to say about this day:

The noise of a multitude in the mountains, like as of a great people; a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: the LORD of hosts mustereth the host of the battle. They come from a far country, from the end of heaven, even the LORD, and the weapons of his indignation, to destroy the whole land. Howl ye; for the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty. Therefore shall all hands be faint, and every man's heart shall melt: And they shall be afraid: pangs and sorrows shall take hold of them; they shall be in pain as a woman that travaileth: they shall be amazed one at another; their faces shall be as flames. Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and he shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it. (Isa. 13:4-9)

1b. [A]nd people devise vanity
. The Hebrew word for people here means "people groups" (cf. Gen. 25:23), and the literary agent used points the people groups back to the nations, encompassing the whole of the earth. Why is it that they devise empty (riyk, "vain," "empty," "senseless") schemes? Why is it that the nations continually think up, or plot vain acts?

2a. [The] kings of [the] earth take their stand.
The intensity of the situation is at its height as the Hebrew intensive form is used. Literally, "[The] kings of [the] earth intensely set themselves." They set themselves against the Lord. First the people of the earth devise schemes against God, then the kings of the earth lead in that attack against God.

2b. And ruling, they counsel together
. The Hebrew yacad means "to found," "fix," and hence are seen together forming a common foundation whose goal is aligning themselves together in the most powerful coalition possible. The kings together collectively as in the days of Babel (Gen. 11).

2c. Against [the] Lord and against His anointed
. The whole of the leaders and hence the whole of the earth are together aligned in opposition against the Lord YHWH and His Messiah! This is similar to the events of the earth before the confusing of languages in the days of Nimrod and his kingdom and the events leading up to the great tower of Babel. The whole earth was working together against God. This event, however, is future and sees different nation groups gather together against the Messiah "the Anointed," which is translated in the Greek as Christos or "the Christ." In Old Testament times, the one who had been anointed to a task had been given all power and authority to perform that task to completion. Kings, for example, were anointed but in a technical sense, "the reigning king of Israel in OT times was referred to as the Messiah. After the promise to David (2 Sam 7:13) 'anointed' came to mean the royal line of David (Ps 2:2; 18:50; 84:9; 89:38, 51; 132:10, 17)" (Merrill Tenney, ged. ed., The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 1, p. 172). However, in the sense of a coming deliverer the term 'Messiah' is exclusively used of Christ and can be seen by His work with both His first and second advents. His work on the cross was something only He could do, however, most times the Messiah is mentioned it refers to a future time when His will rescue Israel and restore the earth; again, only something that the Messiah can accomplish and that is the message of the psalmist. In essence, David says, Why do the nations enter into a hopeless conspiracy? How is it that the kings of the earth think they can succeed in their rebellion against God!

It is important to note the theological significance of the phrase "against the Lord and His Anointed." Verses one and two are quoted by Peter and John as they were released by the Sanhedrin. The Jewish authorities wanted to hear what the sect was up to. There interrogation would result in a life or death ruling. Peter and John praise God saying "Lord, You are God, who made heaven and earth and the sea, and all that is in them, who by the mouth of Your servant David have said: Why did the nations rage, And the people plot vain things? The kings of the earth took their stand, And the rulers were gathered together Against the Lord and against His Christ. For truly against Your holy Servant Jesus, whom You anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, were gathered together to do whatever Your hand and Your purpose determined before to be done." They do not say the events of Acts four fulfill Psalm two, they are praising God for their release, since it was not time for them to die, so Peter and John recognized Jesus as the true Anointed. They recognized God as sovereign and the rulers of the earth as having no power over the things that God was about to do in building His Church! In a general sense, God has anointed people in every generation to perform His will. Whether the anointed of God be the prophets of the OT, priests, kings, or in a special sense David, but this Anointed One is greater than David (see Table 1).

Table 1. Comparison of David and Christ
Anointed of God
2 Sam 12:7
Luke 4:18, Acts 4:27; 10:38; cf Rev. 19:13-16
Ps 2:6 King
2 Sam 12:7
Zech 9:9; John 12:13; 1 Tim 6:25; John 19:19-21; Rev. 1:5; 17:14; 19:16

of Zion
2 Sam 5:7
Isa 2:3; 24:23
Ps. 2:7 My Son
Isa. 7:14; Matt 1:21; Mark 1:1; John 20:31

John 1:14, 18; 3:16; 18; Acts 13:33; Heb 1:5; 5:5; 1 John 4:9
Ps. 2:8 Given the nations
Micah 4:2, 7

Ends of the earth
Micah 4:13

Break the nations
Isa. 52:2; Jer 51:20

3a. Let us intensely pull off their bonds
. Again the rulers rage is seen in the tone of their voice as the intensive cohortative is used; Let us [the nations] pull off their [the Lord and His Anointed] bonds. "They express in plain language their evil intent to break (snap) the bonds and throw off the yoke of the Lord and His Christ over them and over the earth, which they are demonically deluded into thinking belongs to them. When all the while the earth and its inhabitants belong to Him, both by creation (24:1; 100:3; 139:13-14) and by redemption (Eph. 1:13-14; Rev. 5:7-9)" (Unger, p. 750).

3b. And let us cast away their ropes
. In this phrase their arrogance is seen in the use of the causative cohortative verb; "Let us make their ropes hurl." As if their combined effort will make them strong enough to over throw the powers of heaven. This is a Satanic deception of the world order.

II. God's Mockery of the Nation's Conspiracy

He who sits in [the] heavens will laugh. [The] Lord will mock against it. Then He will speak to them in His anger, And He will intensely disturb them with His anger. And I, I set My king upon My holy mountain Zion. (Psalm 2:4-6)

4a. He who sits in [the] heavens will laugh
. A clear distinction is made by the psalmist concerning God who sits or dwells in the heavens above, and the kings of the earth whose dwelling place is some man made building. The place of the judgment seat of God is heaven, meaning that God's authority and sovereign reign is over the whole of the earth and the things of heaven. God sits on the throne of heaven. The rulers sit on their thrones on the earth, but no matter what they do, they can never reach the authority, nor overpass the authority of the ruler of heaven. In fact the participle "He who sits" suggests a proper occupation, namely, He alone is the one who rules from the heavens. And the picture here is that He is looking down, amused. "He laughs at the defiant ones, for between them and Him there is an infinite distance." (Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament)

4b. [The] Lord will mock against it [the vanity].
Most translate the singular pronoun as a plural "them," but this pronoun points back to the masculine singular "vanity." The prophet Isaiah speaks wisely as he says, "All nations before him are as nothing; and they are counted to him less than nothing, and vanity" (Isa. 140:17). In a theological sense, the word vanity is related to the word depravity. At the core of all mankind is vanity (Ps. 39:5, 11), that is, man by himself is vanity (Ps. 94:11). Fundamentally, what is not of God is vanity. There is a day, however, when man will devise no more vanity as the prophet Ezekiel says, "Therefore you shall see no more vanity, nor divine divinations: for I will deliver my people out of your hand: and you shall know that I am the LORD." (Ezek. 13:23)

5a. Then He will speak to them in His anger
. The particle adverb 'az translated "then," has the meaning "next in time," and suggests He will at some point in time stop waiting, being slow to anger, and start speaking in anger. Notice when He does finally speak to the nations, He will do so, as some translate, in wrath. The word for anger used here is the Hebrew 'aph which has "breathing hard through the nostrils" as its root meaning. The picture is one who is fiercely angry, so "wrath" is often used and fits well as the Lord will come back during the great and terrible Day of the Lord (Joel 2:31) and deal with the nations in His wrath!

5b. And He will intensely disturb them with His anger.
The proud kings of the earth will be struck with terror as the day of the Lord reaches its height. In the Hebrew when the author wants to convey an emotional event, the intensive verb is used. Here the kings are at the height of emotion, that is, terror! This may be equated with Revelation 16:1, "Then I heard a loud voice from the temple, saying to the seven angels, 'Go and pour out on the earth the seven bowls of the wrath of God.'" Then the angels begin to pour out the bowls of wrath upon all the earth and her inhabitants. By the end of chapter 18, Babylon is destroyed, "And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all" (Rev. 18:21).

6. And I, I set My king upon My holy mountain Zion
. The psalmist turns to the first person. So as not to mistake whom the author is. The emphatic is used, "and I, I set my king." The contrast between the terror of the kings and the peace which is brought in by the establishment of the new King is striking. This speaks of the events of Revelation 19,

And I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and He who sat on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and wages war. His eyes are a flame of fire, and on His head are many diadems; and He has a name written on Him which no one knows except Himself. He is clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies which are in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, were following Him on white horses. From His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may strike down the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty. And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. (Rev. 19:11-16)

Zion "is the fortified mound between the Kidron and the Tyropean valleys that David captured from the Jebusites (2Sam 5:7). Subsequently, it became known as the city of David. With the building of the temple to the north, that hill later became known as Mount Zion. Zion may even refer specifically to the temple vicinity or more generally to Jerusalem itself; sometimes it includes the entire nation, the covenant community itself (Isa 1:27; Psa 97:8). "Zion" appears frequently in Psa and Lam. It seldom refers to the political capital of Judah, but much more often stands for the city of God in the new age" (TWOT).

There is no mistaking when this psalm is referring to. The use of the word Zion places the psalm in the last days when the Lord will dwell in Zion! That glorious city where the Lord will reign on His throne on earth in Israel!

III. The Son's Final Victory

I will intensely recount [the] statute, [The] Lord said to me, You [are] My Son, This day I have begotten you. Ask of me and I will make [the] nations Your inheritance, And [the] ends of [the] earth Your possession. You will break them with a rod of iron, You will intensely break them as a vessel of [the] potter. (Psalm 2:7-9)

7a. I will intensely recount [the] statute
. A time is coming when the Lord will recount ("count," "recount," "relate") this section of Scripture that is viewed as a statute or decree. The root meaning is "something prescribed," something "cut out," or "made law." The decree has three parts; (1) the eternal Sonship of God the Son; (2) the subjugation of the nations; and (3) the inheritance and possession as ruler of the whole earth. This is a prophecy that is yet to be fulfilled. Someday the nations will be given to the Lord and He will rule with a rod of iron! That day will have its fulfillment in the Messianic Millennial Kingdom.

7b. [The] Lord said to me, You [are] My Son, This day I have begotten you
. The decree of the eternal Sonship of God has several points. First that Jesus Christ is called; (1) the Son of God; (2) the Son of Man; and (3) the Son of David. Though the term "son of" is used in the sense of how families are built up, whether by birth or adoption, the term "son of" is also a Jewish idiom ascribing to the son the characteristics or attributes of that something. For example, "sons of valor" means those possessing courage. In general sons "followed by a genitive denoting virtue, vice, or condition of life; it denotes a man who has that virtue or vice, or who has been brought up in that condition." (H.W.F. Gesenius, Gesenius' Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament, p. 126) So the many associations in Scripture, "the branch is a son with respect to the tree, Ps. lxxx.15; the scholar with respect to his master (sons of prophets), an arrow with respect to the bow or quiver, Job xli.28; corn with respect to threshing-floor, Isa. xxi,10…" (William Wilson, Wilson's Old Testament Word Studies, p.404)

1. Christ as the Son of God
When Jesus Christ (The Savior, The Anointed One) is called the Son of God it means He has the characteristics of and is of the same essence as God. It means He has a unique relationship with God, and indeed has all rights to an inheritance. This is identified in Scripture by the testimony of the Old Testament that the Son of God would be the Messiah (Ps. 2; Isa. 7:14-15; & etc) and have the right to be the eternal King over the whole earth (Ps. 2; 2 Sam. 7:14; & etc). This is also identified in the New Testament by the fact that Jesus calls Himself the Son (John 10:36-38). The Jewish authorities understood the full implication of the title as they sought to kill Him for saying "God was His Father, making Himself equal (isos, "equal in quantity or quality") with God" (John 5:18). In this sense He claimed to be of the same essence as God. The fact that the Son is called God is clear in Hebrews 1:8-10.

There was never a time when Christ was not the Son of God. For example Isaiah refers to the Son as "the everlasting Father,"

For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this. (Isa. 9:6-7)

That Jesus is the unique Son of God is declared (a) in the fact of His unique virgin birth – the incarnation which is a requirement for the Messiah (Isa. 7:14-15; 9:6; Heb. 1:5,6; Luke 1:35; John 1:14; - though it is not that He was birthed that He is called the Son, but rather that the anointed of God came in the flesh. His lineage is the Son of David and son of Mary. It is a fact that the Son is "given," not born!); (b) His baptism of the Holy Spirit (Matt. 3:13-17); His works (John 10:36-38); His transfiguration (Matt. 17:5); His death (Rom. 5:10; 8:32; Gal. 2:20; 1Jn. 1:7; 4:10); His resurrection (Acts 13:33-35); and His much anticipated Kingship (Ps. 2:7-8; John 1:49; 11:27).

To say Christ is the Son of God is to say He is equal with God. Some of the things that only God can perform are associated with the Son. For example, the Son (a) is equal with the Father (John 5:18); (b) has life within Himself (John 5:26); (c) possesses the power to raise the dead (John 5:25); (d) gives life (John 5:21) and eternal life (John 10:10); (e) He sets men free from slavery to sin (John 8:36); (f) receives honor equal with the Father (John 5:23); (g) the object of faith (John 6:40); (h) object of prayer and worship (John 14:13, 14; Heb. 1:6); (i) power to answer prayer (John 14:13); and (j) executes all judgment (John 5:22).

2. Jesus as the Son of Man
The term Son of Man with reference to Jesus Christ refers to His humanity. It defines His relationship to mankind. This is Christ's most used designation for Himself. Dr. Chafer writes, "The statement, 'The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us' (John 1:14), indicates the beginning of an eternal reality in Christ. What is true about His incarnation is equally true of His association with His people, since they, being in Him, can never be separated from Him" (Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology,Vol. 3, p. 32). The term relates Adam to Christ's work on the cross as He was able to represent mankind in His death bringing redemption to mankind (Rom. 5).

Other times Jesus used the phrase Son of Man to emphasize the authority of His claims and declarations: His power to save in Luke 19:10, 'For the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost'; His future resurrection as a sign, 'For just as Jonah became a sign to the Nivevites, so shall the Son of Man be to this generation' (Luke 11:20); and for His glorious judgment … (Luke 9:26) (Dictionary of Premillennial Theology).
Though Christ's work in His death, burial, resurrection and ascension is a dominant theme of the Son of Man, it is the Son of Man's second coming and kingdom reign that one finds in both Old and New Testaments.

And Jesus said to them, "Truly I say to you, that you who have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on His glorious throne, you also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. (Matt. 19:28).

3. The Son of David
The term the Son of David is used specifically of the promised King that would reign in Israel forever. The term is related to the Abrahamic covenant (Gen. 12:1-3; 13:14-17; 15:1-21; 17:1-21; 22:15-18) which is declared to David in 2 Samuel 7:4-17. God promises to establish David's kingdom, house, and throne forever. So Jesus Christ is called the Son of David and will rule from David's throne. This covenant will find fulfillment in Christ. Dr. Chafer notes, "Like the term Messiah, the designation Son of David is wholly Jewish in its import. As Christ is Lord and Head over the Church, so He is King and Messiah over Israel. Later, indeed, He will be King of kings, but that supreme authority will be exercised from the Davidic throne and in connection with His immediate relation to Israel." (Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology, Vol. 3, p. 33)

7c. This day I have begotten you.
The term begotten relates to the public declaration of the Sonship of Christ. That Christ is called the Son and refers to His Father is observed many places in Scripture. The terms "begotten," "only begotten of the Father," and "first-born" are terms that are used with reference to Christ. The Hebrew yalad has at its root meaning "to bear," "to bring forth," hence, the translation begotten. The idea is that God will in some prescribed future day (definite day – "the day") say to the Son "today I have brought you forth" to take possession of the nations. The term "only-begotten of the Father," and "only-begotten Son" (John 1:14, 18; 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9) is the Greek word monogenes which is a compound that means "single of its kind," or literally, "alone (without a companion)-existing one."

John the apostle describes the glory radiated by the unique Son of God – no one else radiated the glory of the Father (John 1:14); moreover, the Son "explained" the Father – no one but the unique Son could explain the Father. It was the unique Son whom God sent into the world; eternal life was provided only through the unique Son of God (John 3:16). In examining the passages it is evident that only-begotten does not suggest a coming into existence, but rather it expresses the uniqueness of the person. Christ was unique as the Son of God, sent by the Father from heaven. (Paul Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology, p. 203)
The term first-born as used of Christ means priority and preeminence. The Greek word is prototokos a compound of protos meaning first in time, place or rank; and tikto meaning to bring forth, bear. Dr. Enns writes:

In its Old Testament culture the predominant emphasis was on the status of the oldest son. He enjoyed the double portion on the inheritance (Deut. 21:17), preferential treatment (Gen. 49:33), and the respect of others (Gen. 37:22). Figuratively, the word denotes priority or supremacy (Ex. 4:22; Jer. 31:9) and is used of Christ. In Colossians 1:18 where Christ is referred to as first-born the meaning is clear: as first-born, Christ is Head of the church and preeminent in everything. In Hebrews 1:6 the supremacy of Christ as the first-born is seen in that angels worship Him. Only God is worshiped. Psalm 89:27 is perhaps one of the clearest explanations of the term first-born. This is an example od synthetic poetry in Hebrew in which the second line explains the first. In this Messianic Psalm God affirms that Messiah will be the first-born, that is, the highest of the kings of the earth. First-born is explained as ruling over the kings of the entire earth.

When God says, "today I have brought you forth" means there will be a future day when the Son of Man, the Son of David will find fulfillment as the King of kings receives His inheritance.

8a. Ask of me and I will make [the] nations Your inheritance
. David wrote in Psalm 22:

All the ends of the earth will remember and turn to the LORD, And all the families of the nations will worship before You (Psalm 22:27).

The expectation that the nations will be given to the Lord has been acknowledged throughout the ages. The Lord is given (1) people who are elect of God (Gen 35:12; Ex. 32:13; ); (2) the land of Israel (Gen 25:12; 48:4; Ex. 6:8; 32:13; Lev 20:24; Ps 105:11; Ez 11:17 ); and (3) all the nations of the earth (Gen. 26:3, Isa 49:8).

The expectation of the inheritance is rooted in the legal aspect that the Lord is the Son. The special relationship of the "only begotten Son," has the legal connotation that Jesus is the only one legally able to inherit the earth and all that is in it.

8b. And [the] ends of [the] earth Your possession
. The possession of the earth is the Lord's. This possession is in reference to the Millennial Kingdom when He will dwell on the earth with the covenant people who will possess the land for eternity and "I [God] will be their [Israel's] God," as promised in the Abrahamic covenant (Gen.17:8).

9a. You will break them with a rod of iron
. The Lord will break them [the nations] with a rod of iron. The Hebrew word used here for break is not dush ("to bruise, "crush by treading") or daka' ("to break into small pieces"), or halam ("to strike as with a hammer"), or even naphats ("to dash," "to break and shatter"), but ra'a' meaning, "to be bad," "be evil," but has as a secondary meaning "to break," "to shatter," "to make good for nothing." The idea is that the Lord will bring evil upon them as they brought evil upon His covenant people Israel (Isa. 13:11; 31:2; 47:11 & etc). He will bring them to nothing. The rod of iron used to break them is the king's scepter. The Messiah will rule with a rod of iron (Rev. 2:27).

And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations: And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father. (Rev. 2:26-27; cf. 12:5)

And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God; That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great. (Rev 19:11-18)

9b. You will intensely break them as a vessel of [the] potter
. The Lord will intensely break them as the emotion of His anger is put to motion. The nations are viewed as vessels of a potter. The potter never knows for certain how the piece will turn out until it is fired. The vessel might look perfect, but once placed in the kiln any manner of catastrophe might occur which makes the vessel useless, so the potter would naphats ("shatter," "break," "beat in pieces"). So it is with the Lord, He will shatter the nations.

IV. Obey the Son So now, kings, be wise, Be instructed, judges of [the] earth, Serve the Lord in fear and rejoice in trembling, Kiss [the] son, lest he be angry, And you be destroyed [of the] way, When his anger will burn as a little [while], Blessed [are] all that seek refuge in Him. (Psalm 2:10-12)

10a. So now, kings, be wise, Be instructed, judges of [the] earth. The kings of the earth are commanded in the strongest sense (Hebrew Hifil imperative) to be wise (sakal, "to be prudent," "wisely understand," "prosper"). This is a continuous call for the nations to consider their dealing with God's covenant people Israel. The nations are "caused to be wise" in the Messianic Kingdom. This is a literal future event described by Isaiah:

And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the LORD'S house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it (Isa. 2:2).

The book of Psalms speaks of the future kingdom worship by the nations,
And all men shall fear, and shall declare the work of God; for they shall wisely consider (sakal) of his doing (Psalm 64:9).

Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him (Psalm 72:11).

All nations whom thou hast made shall come and worship before thee, O Lord; and shall glorify thy name (Psalm 86:9).

Arise, O God, judge the earth: for thou shall inherit all nations (Psalm 82:8).

The judges of the earth are commanded to be instructed ("disciplined," "corrected," "chastised"). The passive means they must submit to being instructed or corrected. Those who are in the position of judging are supposed to execute judgment. The word for judges here is a participle "those who judge, govern, or punish." The idea is probably that those who ruling as kings and those who act in the position of executing judgment are the same people, and hence need to be circumspect, pondering what the Lord has corrected they on.

11a. Serve the Lord in fear and rejoice in trembling
. That something that the rulers of the earth should ponder is the fact of who the Lord really is. He is the sovereign that brings kings in and takes kings out. The Lord is the creator and sustainer of the universe. The One who provides the rain and the harvest. The One who provides salvation to the sinner by the substatutionary sacrifice of His Son Jesus Christ. The Lord is His name and there is no other. So the nations are commanded to serve as subjects to the Lord and to work in fear. As Dr. Ross says, "'Serve,' 'rejoice,' 'fear,' and 'trembling' describe the religious responses of the righteous in worship. They are to lead lives of submission, not rebellion; lives characterized by fear and trembling, not arrogance; lives filled with exultation, not the gloom of oppression." (Allen Ross, in John Walvoord & Roy Zuck gen. ed., The Bible Knowledge Commentary, p. 792)

12a. Kiss [the] Son, lest He be angry. The kings are commanded to intensely kiss ("to put together," "kiss," "to handle," "be equipped with") the Son of God. The word for son used here is the Aramaic word bar not the Hebrew word ben. The address is to the gentile nations and the idea is to be submissive to the Lord. The command is for the gentile nations to pay homage to the Son, the Messiah (cf 1 Kg. 19:18; Hos. 13:2). Note however, the translation might better be rendered "put together [who the] son [is], lest He be angry."

12b. And you be destroyed [of the] way, When His anger burns as a little [while]
. The result of not acknowledging the Lord as who He is leads to destruction of one's way ("way," "road," "direction," "manner," and fig., "of course of life," "of moral character"). The idea is that the kings of the earth are going their own way, which is not the way of the Lord and if they continue on that course, they will be destroyed both in the sense of loss of their way of life as sovereign kings in sovereign land (i.e. physical life), and spiritual life.

The term "as a little" is not that His anger will burn a little (quality), but, little in reference to time. His anger will be "like a little," "within a little," that is, "a short [time]." Compared to the long duration of the nations continued hostility towards Israel and the Lord, the Lord's period will be short.

The timing of their destruction is given as "when His anger burns a little [while]." This is associated with the "Day of the Lord," a time when all the nations will be placed under the Lord's feet. This period will see the destruction of all the nations and the establishment of the Davidic Kingdom with the Lord as the Son of David reigning on the throne of David and the nations coming to pay homage to the Lord.

12b. Blessed [are] all that seek refuge in Him
. The final phrase is one of encouragement to all the seek refuge ("seek refuge," "flee for protection," "to put trust in [God]," "confide or hope in [God]") in God. This promise is an ongoing one throughout the Scriptures and links the idea of those who submit to the Lord are taking refuge in Him and will be saved from the great and terrible day of the Lord. Those that seek refuge in Him will enter the Millennial Kingdom rest where the nations will be at peace, and everyone can go up to the mountain of the Lord to praise Him and be taught from the Lord Himself.